Home » FM market represents nearly 8% of UK GDP

FM market represents nearly 8% of UK GDP

Published: 03/07/2023

The maintenance and repair of buildings is a significant contributor to the wealth and wellbeing of the nation.

A recent BCIS report1 shows that maintenance expenditure represents around 3.3% of gross domestic product (GDP).

The BCIS Life cycle cost benchmark estimates2, indicate that maintenance (fabric and services maintenance and decorations) represents around 42% of total facilities management costs (maintenance, cleaning, and utilities). This would value the FM market at around 7.9% of UK GDP.

The report aims to estimate the value of the work carried out in the maintenance sector. The estimate is built up from construction output, estimates of work carried out by directly employed maintenance workers in other sectors and householders’ expenditure on maintaining their homes not included elsewhere.

At current prices, total maintenance expenditure in 2021 is estimated to be £75.66bn.

At constant prices, this shows an annual increase of 13.8%, following a fall of -7.1% in 2020.

Source: BCIS

Total expenditure on maintenance in 2021 represented 1.13% of the value, at the replacement cost, of the stock of the building and works maintained.

Non-housing maintenance represents 1.10% of the replacement value of the non-housing stock of buildings and works, while housing maintenance expenditure represented 1.16% of the replacement cost of the dwellings to be maintained.

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Note: The figure of maintenance expenditure as a percentage of the stock to be maintained has metamorphosed into a rule of thumb to estimate the maintenance expenditure on individual buildings and estates. However, estimates of national expenditure are inappropriate for assessing the budget needs of specific properties. BCIS has always stressed that budgets for building maintenance must be prepared with regard to the condition of the buildings to be maintained, the standard to which they are required to be maintained and their occupation and use.

1Economic Significance of Maintenance 2023, BCIS, available in BCIS OpX

2BCIS Life Cycle costs, published in BCIS OpX


An estimating expenditure tool which helps facility managers and surveyors find maintenance and operating costs. It includes component costs, maintenance costs, wages and day rates.

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